HTML Fundamentals Ahmed Ebeid and Banumathy Sridharan


HTM or HTML Extension

When you save an HTML file, you can use either the .htm or the .html extension. We have used .htm in our examples. It might be a bad habit inherited from the past when some of the commonly used software only allowed three letter extensions.
With newer software we think it will be perfectly safe to use .html.

Note on HTML Editors:
You can easily edit HTML files using a WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) editor like FrontPage, Claris Home Page, or Adobe PageMill instead of writing your markup tags in a plain text file.
But if you want to be a skillful Web developer, we strongly recommend that you use a plain text editor to learn your primer HTML.

Frequently Asked Questions
Q: After I have edited an HTML file, I cannot view the result in my browser, why?
A: Make sure that you have saved the file with a proper name and extension like "c:\mypage.htm". Also make sure that you use the same name when you open the file in your browser.
Q: I have tried to edit an HTML file but the changes don't show in the browser. Why?
A: The browser caches your pages so it doesn't have to read the same page twice. When you have changed a page, the browser doesn't know that. Use the browsers refresh/reload button to force the browser to read the edited page.
Q: Can I use both Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator?
A: Yes, you can do all your training with both Netscape 3.0 or higher, and Internet Explorer 3.0 or higher. However, a few of the examples in our advanced classes assume you are running Internet Explorer 4.0 or 5.0, or Netscape 6.0.
Q: Does my computer have to run Windows, what about a Mac?
A: You can do all your training on a non Windows computer like a Mac. However, a few of the examples in our higher classes assume that you are running a newer version of Windows, like Windows 98 or Windows 2000.

Basic HTML Tags
These are tags that define the heading, paragraph and line breaks.

Headings are defined with h1, h2, h3, h4, h5 and h6 tags. They come in pairs as a start and end tag.
h1 defines the largest and h6 the smallest heading. HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after a heading.
The following example demonstrates heading tags.

Open your text editor and type in the following text:

Heading Tags Demo

This is the largest tag

This is a heading tag

This is a heading tag

This is a heading tag

This is a heading tag
This is the smallest tag